Muslim conquest of Egypt. Muslim conquest of North Africa. Umayyad invasions of Anatolia and Constantinople. Sicily and Southern Italy. The Muslim conquest of the Levant Arabic: Arab Muslim forces had appeared on Levantul online dating southern borders even the death of prophet Muhammad inresulting in the Battle of Mu'tah inbut the real invasion began in under his successors, the Rashidun Caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar ibn Khattabwith Khalid ibn al-Walid as their most important military leader.
Syria had been under Roman "Levantul online dating" for seven centuries prior to the Arab Muslim conquest and had been invaded by the Sassanid Persians on a number of occasions during the 3rd, 6th and 7th centuries; it had also been subject to raids by the Sassanid's Arab allies, the Lakhmids. Syria proper stretched from Antioch and Aleppo in the north to the top of the Dead Levantul online dating. To the west and south of the Dead Sea lay the province of Palestine.
Syria was mostly a Syriac and Hellenized land with some Jewish presence and with a partly Arab population, especially in its eastern and southern parts. The Syriac Christians, Jews and Arabs had been there since pre-Roman times, and some had embraced Christianity since Constantine I legalized it in the fourth century and moved the capital from Italy to Byzantium renamed Constantinoplefrom which the name Byzantine is derived.
The Arabs of Syria were people of no consequence until the migration of the powerful Ghassan tribe from Yemen to Syria, who thereafter ruled a semi-autonomous state with their own king under the Romans. The Ghassan Dynasty became one of the honoured princely dynasties of the Empire, with the Ghassan king ruling over the Arabs in Jordan and Southern Syria from his capital at Bosra. These lines were only designed to protect from bandits, and the bulk of the Byzantine defenses were concentrated in Northern Syria facing the traditional foes, the Sassanid Persians.
This defense line had as a drawback that it enabled the Muslimswho emerged from the desert in the south, to reach as far north as Gaza before meeting regular Byzantine troops. The 7th century was a time of fast military changes in the Byzantine Empire. The empire was certainly not in a state of collapse when it faced the new challenge from Arabia after being exhausted by recent Roman—Persian Warsbut failed completely to tackle the challenge effectively.
The Campaign of the Apostasy was fought and completed during the eleventh year of the Hijri. The year 12 Hijri dawned, on 18 Marchwith Arabia united under the central authority of the Caliph at Medina. Whether Abu Bakr intended a full-out imperial conquest or not is hard to say; he did, however, set in motion a historical trajectory that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in historystarting with a confrontation with the Persian Empire under the general Khalid ibn al-Walid.
After successful campaigns against the Sassanids and the ensuing conquest of Iraq Khalid established his stronghold in Iraq.
While engaged with Sassanid forces, confrontation also Levantul online dating with the Byzantine Arab clients, the Ghassanids. Tribal contingents were soon recruited to the call from Medinah from all over the Arabian peninsula.
The tradition of raising armies from tribal contingents remained in use untilwhen Caliph Umar organised the army as a state department. Abu Bakr Levantul online dating the army into four corps, each with its own commander and objective. Not the precise position of the Byzantine armyCaliph Abu Bakr ordered that all corps should remain in touch with each other so that they could help each other if the Byzantines were able to concentrate their army in any sector of operation.
In case the corps had to concentrate for one major battle, Abu Ubaidah was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the entire army. The first to leave was Yazid's corps, followed by Shurahbil, Abu Ubaidah and Amr, each a day's march from the other. Caliph Abu Bakr walked for a short distance by the side of each corps commander. His parting words which he repeated to each of the corps commanders, were as follows:.
In your march be not hard on yourself or your army. Be not harsh with your men or your officers, whom you should consult in Levantul online dating matters. Be just and abjure evil and tyranny, for no nation which is unjust prospers or achieves victory over its enemies. When you meet the enemy turn not your back on him; for whoever turns his back, except to manoeuvre for battle or to regroup, earns the wrath of Allah.
His abode shall be hell, and what a terrible place it is! And when you have won a victory over your enemies, don't kill women or children or the aged and do not slaughter beasts except for eating.
And break not the pacts which you "Levantul online dating." Let them be and destroy not their monasteries. And you will meet other people who are partisans of Satan and worshippers of the Cross, who shave the centre of their heads so that you can see the scalp. Assail them with your swords until they submit to Islam or pay the Jizya. I entrust you to the care of Levantul online dating. Moving to their assigned target beyond Tabouk, Yazid's corps made contact with a small Christian Arab force that was retreating after a skirmish with the Muslim advance guard, after which Yazid made for the Valley of Araba where it meets the southern end of the Dead Sea.
As the main Byzantine defence line started from the coastal regions near Ghazahh, Yazid arrived at the Valley of Araba at about the same time as Amr bin Al Aas reached Elat. The two forward detachments sent by the Byzantine army to prevent the entry of Yazid's and Amr's corps, respectively, into Palestine, were easily Levantul online dating by them, though they did prevent the Rashidun forces from reaching their assigned objective.
Abu Ubaidah and Shurhabil, on the other hand, continued their march, and by early May reached the region between Bosra and Jabiya. Upon Heraclius' orders, Byzantine forces from different garrisons in the north started moving to gather at Ayjnadyn. From here they could engage Amr's corps and maneuver against the flank or rear of the rest of the Muslim corps that were in Jordan and Southern Syria.
The strength of the Byzantine forces, according to rough estimates, was aboutBecause Abu Ubaida didn't have the experience as a commander of military forces in such major operations, especially with the powerful Roman Army, Abu Bakr decided to send Khalid ibn Walid to the Syrian front to command the Muslim army.
According to early Muslim chronicles Abu Bakr said:. Khalid was immediately dispatched to the Syrian front. He set out for Syria from Al-Hirahin Iraq in early Junetaking with him half his army, about strong. The Muslim armies in Syria were in Levantul online dating of urgent reinforcement, so Khalid avoided the conventional route to Syria via Daumat ul Jandal, as it was the longer route, and would take weeks to reach Syria.
To engage them at a time when Muslim armies were being outflanked in Syria was not a wise idea.
Khalid selected a shorter route to Syria, an unconventional route passing through the Syrian Desert. He boldly marched his armies through the desert. It is recorded that soldiers marched for two days without a single drop of water, before reaching a pre-decided water source at an oasis. Khalid thus entered Northern Syria and caught the Byzantines at their right flank. According to modern historians, it was this ingenious strategic maneuver of Khalid, his "Levantul online dating" march through the desert and appearing at the north-eastern front of the Byzantines while they were occupied in tackling the Muslim armies in Southern Syria, that unhinged the Byzantine defences in Syria.
After dealing with all these cities, Khalid moved towards Damascuspassing through a mountain pass which is now known as Sanita-al-Uqab Uqab pass after the name of Khalid's army standard. From here he moved away from Damascus, towards Bosrathe capital of Ghassanid Arab kingdom, a vassal of the Eastern Roman empire.
He ordered other Muslim commanders to concentrate their armies, still near the Syrian-Arabian border at Bosra. The latter laid siege of Bosra with his small army of men. The Roman and Ghassanid Arab garrison, noticing that this might be the advance guard of the larger Muslim army to come, decided to attack and destroy Shurhabil's army. They came out of the fortified city and attacked Shurhabil, surrounding him from all Levantul online dating Khalid reached the arena with his advance guard cavalry and saved the day for Shurhabil.
The combined forces of Khalid, Shurhabil and Abu Ubaidah then laid siege to the city of Bosrawhich surrendered some time in mid July This effectively ended the Ghassanid Dynasty.
Here Khalid took over the command of the Muslim armies in Syria from Abu Ubaidah, according to the instructions of the Caliph. Massive Byzantine armies were concentrating at Ajnadayn to push the invading armies back to the desert.
Early Muslim sources have mentioned its size to be 90, while most of the modern historians doubt the figures, but consider this battle to be the key that broke the Byzantine power in Syria. According to the instructions of Khalid all Muslim corps concentrated at Ajnadayn, where they fought a decisive battle against the Byzantines on 30 July Khalid decided to capture Damascus, the Byzantine stronghold.
At Damascus Thomas, son in law of Emperor Heraclius, was in charge. He wrote to Emperor Heraclius, who was at Emesa that time, for reinforcements. Levantul online dating
Another army that tried to halt the Muslim advance to Damascus was defeated in the Battle of Maraj as Saffer on 19 August These engagements delayed Khalid's advance and gave Thomas enough time to prepare for a siege. Meanwhile, a reinforcement reached the city, which Heraclius had dispatched after hearing the bad news of Ajnadyn. But before another regiment of Heraclius could reach Damascus, Khalid had already laid siege to Damascus.
Khalid reached Damascus on the 20th of August, and besieged the city. To isolate the city from the rest of the region Khalid placed detachments south on the road to Palestine and in the north at the route, and several other smaller detachments on routes towards Damascus.
Khalid's forces withstood three Roman sallies that tried to break the siege. Khalid finally attacked and conquered Damascus on 18 September after a 30 days siege, although according to some sources the siege lasted for four or six months. Heraclius, having received the news of the fall of Damascus, left for Antioch from Emesa. A peace agreement was made: After the deadline of three days was over, the Muslim cavalry under Khalid's command, attacked the Roman army, catching up on them using an unknown shortcut, at the Battle of Maraj-al-Debajkilometres miles north of Damascus.
Abu Bakr died during the siege of Damascusand Umar became the new Caliph. He dismissed his cousin Khalid ibn al-Walid from command and appointed Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah as the new commander in chief of the Islamic army in Syria. Abu Ubaidah got the letter of his appointment and Khalid's disposal during the siege, but he delayed the announcement until the city was conquered. On 22 AugustAbu Bakr, the first caliph, died, having made Umar his successor.
Umar's first move was to relieve Khalid from command and appointing Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah as the new commander in chief of the Islamic army. Later on, Khalid gave a pledge of loyalty to the new Caliph and kept on serving as an ordinary commander under Abu Ubaidah.
He is reported to have said:. There was inevitably a slowdown in the pace of military operations, as Abu Ubaidah moved more slowly and steadily. The conquest of Syria continued under him. Abu Ubaidah, being an admirer of Khalid, made him commander of the cavalry and relied heavily on his advice during the whole campaign.
There was a Byzantine and Christian Arab garrison nearby, but the size of the garrison was miscalculated by the Muslim informants. The garrison quickly encircled the small Muslim detachment, but before it was completely destroyed, Khalid came to the rescue of the Muslim army. Abu Ubaidah, having received new intelligence, had sent Khalid. Khalid reached the battlefield and defeated the garrison on 15 October and returned with tons of looted booty from the fair and hundreds of Roman prisoners.
pinehavenabuse.info; Published online: 18 July The dates have been re-evaluated on the basis of their archaeological context. Associated material remains "Levantul online dating" radiocarbon dating of the shaft was brought to the southern Levant, Levantul online dating another major component to the. For the purpose of the book, the Levant region will Levantul online dating the countries that border the Print Publication Date: Nov Published online: Mar