Codes of ethics in the professions serve numerous purposes. At the level of the profession itself, codes document the standards according to which the profession can be held accountable for the conduct of its members. Further, because society relegates control for many of the professions to the professional organizations themselves, the professions have developed codes to provide the basis of self-regulation Soskolne At the level of the individual professional, codes can provide a practical guide to members of the profession who might be experiencing a moral or ethical dilemma concerning Before the development of isotopic dating methods the age of the earth was estimated by quizlet professional conduct in a particular circumstance.
Where a professional finds himself or herself in a state of moral or ethical tension, it is self-evident that codes can be helpful in providing counsel. Revisions to the code can be considered through grass-roots individual membership input at organizational meetings, workshops and conferences.
This ongoing discussion of issues and concerns constitutes a review process ensuring that any code remains sensitive to changing social values.
Professions depending for their sustenance on public support thereby improve their likelihood of remaining publicly accountable and relevant Glick and Shamoo Codes could assist professionals being charged with malpractice and perhaps even in litigation. If such practice were to have resulted in harm, the code-abiding individual professional would be less likely to be found guilty of having committed a wrong. However, based on the principle of trust Pellegrino, Veatch and Langanthe public has the expectation that the best possible professional judgement will be exercised in the public interest.
Where the physician-patient relationship is concerned, the patient has the right under the principle of trust to expect that his or her interests will be best served.
In such circumstances, it is the public good that will usually need to take precedence over that of the individual. Regardless, codes provide no substitute for legal liability dimensions of conduct for which government has enacted laws to protect the public interest Cohen Codes do have associated with them the notion of statutory force, implying the ability for their enforcement through the administering of some type of disciplinary action.
Indeed, the notions of accountability and self-regulation referred to above have associated with them some sense of control minimally, peer pressure; maximally, the removal of licence to practice that can be exercised over the members of the profession by the professional organization itself. The latter emphasize guidance with fewer implications for enforcement associated with them. It should be apparent that codes and also guidelines do not carry the force of law.
In essence, codes and guidelines are intended to provide guidance for professionals, collectively and individually, in their relationships with their clients including patients and research subjectswith their colleagues and co-workers including their studentsand with the public including stakeholder groups. In addition, codes require that the quality of professional work and hence the stature of the profession itself is advanced.
In contrast, however, it can generally be stated that codes associated with scientific research will require that the public interest take precedence over any individual or other interests. One exception would be where a researcher discovers child abuse in a research subject; here the researcher would have the obligation to report this to the child welfare authorities.
The process by which codes are developed has consequences for their application. By including members of the profession and students of the profession in code development, as well as in code review and revision, ownership of the resultant document by a greater number of individuals is believed more likely. With broad-based ownership, increased compliance by a greater number is believed more assured. The content of a code should be user friendly to maximize its utility.
Codes can be of varying length. Some are brief, while some are substantial. The more substantial that a code is, the more specific it is possible for it to be. Codes can be made to be user friendly by virtue of their structure and content. For example, a summary set of the principles upon which the code is based could be presented first, followed by expanded aspirational or prescriptive statements, which constitute the code itself.
These can be followed by a commentary that explicates each statement in turn, perhaps noting special circumstances in the form of case studies that might serve as useful examples.
The principles and their showever, are highly dependent on the values recognized as inherent to the pursuits of a profession. While these values may be universal, interpretations as well as practices at the local and regional levels may differ. The commentary should incorporate, or could be followed by or complemented with, case study materials that derive from real-life instances of ethical dilemmas or tensions.
The case study materials could be ethically analysed in either sanitized i. The objective behind case studies is not to seek retribution, but rather to provide examples for teaching purposes.
Learning is enhanced by real-life situations. It is from an understanding of the code that it becomes possible for a profession to develop more detailed standards of practice. These address more specific areas of activity associated with professional conduct, including a broad range of activity from interpersonal behaviours to both how research is conducted and how the results of that research are communicated.
The development of a code by any profession has almost invariably tended to be driven by issues having a direct bearing on that profession. However, codes also need to take broader social issues into account Fawcett In fact, in a recent analysis of several codes, Summers et al.
Because the professions manifest substantial influence, if their codes indeed were to take broader social issues into account, then a great confluence and concurrence of effort would be brought to bear on Before the development of isotopic dating methods the age of the earth was estimated by quizlet areas of human endeavour that currently fall between the cracks in promoting the common social good.
Such pressure could help reduce dangers to human welfare, such as militarism and ecological destruction. It should be recognized that there exist two schools of thought for ethics training: However, it is well known that ethically analyzed case study material has an invaluable role to play in the education process.
Cases provide a context for applying principles. Because graduate ethics training in the professions is becoming more recognized as an essential place for students to gain awareness of the values, ethical principles and standards of practice of the profession, a model curriculum might ideally be included as part of a code; this will facilitate the training of students intent on entering the profession.
The need for this is demonstrated through a recent survey that identified inconsistencies and shortcomings regarding the ethics components in graduate training programmes across the United States Swazey, Anderson and Seashore Since then, codes have been developed and periodically revised in response to newly recognized issues arising, for example, from human value shifts and, more recently, from technological advances Declaration of Helsinki ; Ad hoc Committee on Medical Ethics ; Russel and Westrin Since the s, other professions have become involved in code development for their own professional organizations.
The area of professional codes in fact has become a cottage industry since the s. Under the auspices of its Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility, AAAS initiated a seminal professional ethics project designed to examine the features of and activities associated with codes in the science and engineering professions. The report arising from this effort subsequently generated renewed interest in discussing both code development and revision with many of the professions Chalk, Frankel and Chafer The codes that have evolved have tended, however, to focus on the physician-patient relationship, with concerns about confidentiality being pre-eminent.
More recently, perhaps motivated by the growth of applied health research, codes have expanded their attention to include issues pertaining to researcher-patient relationships. Because of population-based research, codes now are addressing concerns for researcher-population relationships. The latter has been aided by the experience of other professions such as sociology, anthropology and statistics.
Before the development of isotopic dating methods the age of the earth was estimated by quizlet of the caring professions related to the practice of occupational health have been engaged in the discussion of professional ethics. In the occupationally specific areas of health services Guidotti et al. These presentations serve well the need for furthering discussion in these areas with a view to revising extant codes.
The importance of integrating ethics into the day-to-day activities of professionals is exemplified by these recent texts, which contain appropriately detailed sections on ethics. The professional thereby is reminded that in all aspects of professional practice, all decisions and recommendations have consequences with associated ethical underpinnings.
More recent work on the subject of misconduct in science requires integration into newer texts Dale ; Grandjean and Andersen ; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health ; Price ; Reed ; Sharphorn ; Soskolne a; Soskolne b; Soskolne and Macfarlane, ; Teich and Frankel Because one of the fundamental goals of science is the pursuit of truth through objectivity, plagiarism and the fabrication or the falsification of data are counter to the scientific ethic.
As the scientific enterprise expands to include more and more scientists, misconduct in science is coming to the attention of the public more frequently. However, it is believed that even in the face of increasing competition and the potential for conflicting interests, the vast majority of those engaged in science do adhere to the principles of truth and objectivity. The frequency of misconduct does, however, remain difficult to assess Goldberg and Greenberg ; Greenberg and Martell ; Frankel The potential harm to particular scientific efforts as a result of misconduct is one concern.
Another concern is the loss of faith by the public in scientists, with consequent reductions in support for the scientific enterprise. The latter has such potentially dire consequences for both science and society that all scientists, and especially students of science, need to be trained in the scientific ethic and reminded of these principles from time to time.
While some codes do address the need for honesty and objectivity in science, the seriousness of current pressures to perform in the presence of apparently declining awareness of societal ethics would dictate that training at all levels include the subject of ethics, values and philosophy.
Indeed, the United States Public Health Service requires that universities seeking to obtain research grant support have procedures in place for dealing with and reporting misconduct in science Reed Furthermore, university training programmes in public health disciplines must include ethics teaching to qualify for federal funding Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health Codes of professional conduct tend to be a narrative description of an assemblage of normative practices.
These practices pertain to the moral and ethical standards of a group, be it a professional organization, association or society, having a common skill set in the service of people. Most professional organizations have produced codes through the top-down approach, where the elected officials of the profession have undertaken the task.
The view that the power brokers of the profession have major influence over the specification of what constitutes appropriate professional conduct could detract from the credibility associated with any resultant code.
Codes developed by international organizations do have the power of influencing regional groups of people to consider the concerns and statements included in international codes. In this way, regions that have not given attention to the development of codes might be stimulated to do so. Presumably, provided the intent of international codes is limited to a function of providing stimulus, ongoing interaction could serve to iteratively modify and update international codes so that ultimately the international code could well reflect transnational concerns.
Care must be exercised to respect regional cultural norms that are not in conflict with, for example, accepted declarations on human rights. Hence, code makers should be sensitive to cultural differences, and not allow their work to homogenize human behaviour; cultural diversity must rather be encouraged. Noted earlier was the Before the development of isotopic dating methods the age of the earth was estimated by quizlet that codes do imply some degree of self-regulation if the expectation of accountability is to have meaning.
This would suggest the existence of procedures for investigating allegations of misconduct or malpractice of any type, and for correcting conduct deemed professionally inappropriate Price ; Dale ; Grandjean and Andersen In addition, some remedy might be provided for any harms that might have derived from professional misconduct.
The procedures to be invoked in investigations of allegations of misconduct or malpractice must be pre-specified. However, because public confidence rests on professional self-regulation, investigations should be dealt with as efficiently as possible with respect for due process at all times "Before the development of isotopic dating methods the age of the earth was estimated by quizlet" ; Soskolne a, b. The threat of revoking professional licence to practice is one way that the profession has leverage to maximize among its members adherence to any codes.
Many professions have no such leverage; their membership is made up of dues-paying individuals with a wide range of qualifications for which regional legislatures have not required licensure as a requirement of membership in the profession.
The only recourse in such instances is that of peer pressure. It is not within the scope of this article to develop a comprehensive code, but rather to present the process by which codes are developed.
It is the intent in so doing to provide motivation for the ongoing discussion of codes as a component of a broader-based professional ethics programme and to alert the reader to current issues about which further discussion is needed for the possible inclusion of such resolved matters into revised codes. As noted by Guidotti et al. These included the virtue of full access to accurate information, and that the burden of risk should not be taken by the worker in the presence of unproved but sound evidence.
The question of accurate information and implied truth has associated with it issues of scientific integrity as referred to in North America or of scientific dishonesty as referred to in Denmark Andersen et al. Clearly, the pursuit of truth as the main target of scientific endeavour must be reinforced at every opportunity, including its full integration into codes, case study materials and ethics programmes generally Hall With technological advances, the ability grows to more precisely measure biological parameters.
Before the development of isotopic dating methods, scientists estimated the age of the earth using each of the following except. determining the time it takes to. Before the development of isotopic dating methods, the age of the earth was isotope pairs can be determined by laboratory testing and used to estimate the. A. Earth's billion-year geological and biological history is deduced from determine relative ages of the rock layers.
Samples before the K-T boundary show a high deposits using new methods, scientists have revised the date to 66 million the Deccan Traps, a geological formation in India, are estimated to have.
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