Silicon Valley sometimes abbreviated as SV is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California which serves as a global center for high technologyinnovation and social media.
It corresponds roughly to the geographical Santa Clara Valley. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the third largest in Californiaand the tenth largest in the United States.
The word "silicon" originally referred to the large number of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers in the region, but the area is now the home to many Limited de america del norte yahoo dating the world's largest high-tech corporationsincluding the headquarters of 39 businesses in the Fortuneand thousands of startup companies. Silicon Valley also accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development.
It was in the Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessorand the microcomputer, among other key technologies, were developed. As ofthe region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers. As more high-tech companies were established across San Jose and the Santa Clara Valley, and then north towards the Bay Area's two other major cities, San Francisco and Oaklandthe "Silicon Valley" has come to have two definitions: The term is now generally used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector.
The name also became a global synonym for leading high-tech research and enterprises, and thus inspired similar named locationsas well as research parks and technology centers with a comparable structure all around the world. The popularization of the name is credited to Don Hoeflerwho first used it in the article "Silicon Valley in the USA", appearing in the January 11, issue of the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News.
Silicon Valley was born through several contributing factors intersecting, including a skilled STEM research base housed in area universities, plentiful venture capitaland steady U.
Department of Defense spending. Stanford University leadership was especially important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its growth and success. On August 23,the first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco lightship outside the Golden Gatesignaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish—American War.
Baugh…" He says, "Inthe gentleman established a wigwag telegraph station a top a high hill overlooking Portsmouth Squares for signaling arriving ships… The operator at the first station caught these signals by telescope and relayed them to the Merchant's Exchange for the waiting business community.
It was known as the Inner Station; the second, as the Outer Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs. According to Arbuckle p. The line was completed when [James] Gamble's northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October InCharles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with regularly scheduled programming in San Jose.
Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, and signed a contract with the Navy in Navy blimps were based there. Many of the original companies stayed, while new ones moved in. The immediate area was soon filled with aerospace firms, such as Lockheed. William Eitel, Jack McCullough, and Charles Littonwho together pioneered vacuum tube manufacturing in the Bay Area, were hobbyists with training in technology gained locally who participated in development of radio by the ham radio hobby.
High frequencyand especially, Very high frequencyVHF, transmission in the Limited de america del norte yahoo dating meter band, required higher quality power tubes than were manufactured by the consortium of RCA, Western Electric, General Electric, Westinghouse which controlled vacuum tube manufacture. Litton, founder of Litton Industriespioneered manufacturing techniques which resulted in award of wartime contracts to manufacture transmitting tubes for radar to Eitel-McCullougha San Bruno firm, which manufactured power-grid tubes for radio amateurs and aircraft radio equipment.
A union organizing drive in —40 at Eitel-McCullough by the strong Bay Area labor movement was fought off by adoption of a Limited de america del norte yahoo dating of welfare capitalism which included pensions and other generous benefits, profit sharing, and such extras as a medical clinic and a cafeteria. An atmosphere of cooperation and collaboration was established.
On October 4, the Soviet Union launched the first space satellite, Sputnikwhich sparked fear that the Soviet Union was pulling ahead technologically. After President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act NASAhe turned to Fairchild Semiconductor[ further explanation needed ] then the only company in the world that was able to make transistors.
The president funded Fairchild's project, [ further explanation needed ] which was highly successful. Stanford Universityits affiliates, and graduates have played a major role in Limited de america del norte yahoo dating development of this area. A very powerful sense of regional solidarity accompanied the rise of Silicon Valley. From the s, Stanford University's leaders saw its mission as service to the West and shaped the school accordingly. At the same time, the perceived exploitation of the West at the hands of eastern interests fueled booster-like attempts to build self-sufficient local industry.
Thus, regionalism helped align Stanford's interests with those of the area's high-tech firms for the first fifty years of Silicon Valley's development. During the s and s, Frederick Termanas Stanford's dean of engineering and provost, encouraged faculty and graduates to start their own companies.
He is credited with nurturing Hewlett-PackardVarian Associatesand other high-tech firms, until what would become Silicon Valley grew up around the Stanford campus. Terman is often called "the father of Silicon Valley". Shockley's work served as the basis for many electronic developments for decades. During —85, solid state technology research and development at Stanford University followed three waves of industrial innovation made possible by support from private corporations, mainly Bell Telephone LaboratoriesShockley SemiconductorFairchild and Xerox PARC.
After World War II, universities were experiencing enormous demand due
Limited de america del norte yahoo dating returning students.
To address the financial demands of Stanford's growth requirements, and to provide local employment opportunities for graduating students, Frederick Terman proposed the leasing of Stanford's lands for use as an office park, named the Stanford Industrial Park later Stanford Research Park in the year Leases were limited to high technology companies. Its first tenant was Varian Associatesfounded by Stanford alumni in the s to build military radar components.
However, Terman also found venture capital for civilian technology start-ups. One of the major success stories was Hewlett-Packard. InStanford created the Honors Cooperative Program to allow full-time employees of the companies to pursue graduate degrees from the University on a part-time basis. The initial companies signed five-year agreements in which they would pay double the tuition for each student in order to cover the costs.
Hewlett-Packard has become the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world, and transformed the home printing market when it released the first thermal drop-on-demand ink jet printer in InWilliam Shockley left Bell Labs in a disagreement over the handling of the invention of the transistor.
Unlike many other researchers who used germanium as the semiconductor material, Shockley believed that silicon was the better material for making transistors.
Shockley intended to replace the current transistor with a new three-element design today known as the Shockley diodebut the design was considerably more difficult to build than the "simple" transistor.
InShockley decided to end research on the silicon transistor. As a result of Shockley's abusive management style, eight engineers left the company to form Fairchild Semiconductor ; Shockley referred to them as the " traitorous eight ". On April 23,J. It rescheduled a meeting in Palo Alto regarding his vision of a computer network which he imagined as an electronic commons open to all the main and essential medium of informational interaction for governments, institutions, corporations, and individuals.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of and other factors such as the mass exodus by Vietnamese boat people resulted in significant immigration, particularly by Asians, Latinos, and Portuguese, to Silicon Valley where they contributed to both the high-tech and production workforce.
In AprilIntel released the Intel a Limited de america del norte yahoo dating on a chip", "the first truly usable microprocessor". A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer 's central processing unit CPU on a single integrated circuit IC. The Homebrew Computer Club was an informal group of electronic enthusiasts and technically minded hobbyists who gathered to trade parts, circuitsand information pertaining to DIY construction of computing devices. They both were interested in maintaining a regular, open forum for people to get together to work on making computers more accessible to everyone.
By the early s, there were many semiconductor companies in the area, computer firms using their devices, and programming and service companies serving both. Industrial space was plentiful and housing was still inexpensive. InIntelligent Machines Journal -a hobbyist journal- changed its name to InfoWorldand, with offices in Palo Altobegan covering the explosive emergence of the microcomputer industry in the valley.
Although semiconductors are still a major component of the area's economy, Silicon Valley has been most famous in recent years for innovations in software and Internet services. Silicon Valley has significantly influenced computer operating systems, softwareand user interfaces.
Xerox hired some of Engelbart's best researchers beginning in the early s. While Xerox marketed equipment using its technologies, for the most part its technologies flourished elsewhere. Incommercial use of the Internet grew substantially Limited de america del norte yahoo dating the initial wave of internet startups, Amazon.
Silicon Valley is generally considered to have been the center of the dot-com bubblewhich started in the mids and collapsed after the NASDAQ stock market began to decline dramatically in April During the bubble era, real estate prices reached unprecedented levels. For a brief time, Sand Hill Road was home to the most expensive commercial real estate in the world, and the booming economy resulted in severe traffic congestion. After the dot-com crash, Silicon Valley continues to maintain its status as one of the top research and development centers in the world.
A The Wall Street Journal story found that 12 of the 20 most inventive towns in America were in California, and 10 of those were in Silicon Valley. Silicon Valley has a social and business ethos that supports innovation and entrepreneurship. Attempts to create "Silicon Valleys" in environments where disruptive innovation does not go over well have a poor track record.
The San Francisco Bay Area has the largest concentration of high-tech companies in the United Statesathigh-tech jobs, of which Silicon Valley accounts forhigh-tech jobs. Silicon Valley has the highest concentration of high-tech workers of any metropolitan area, with The region is the biggest high-tech manufacturing center in the United States. Manufacture of transistors is, or was, the core industry in Silicon Valley.
The production workforce  was for the most part composed of Asian and Latina immigrants who were paid low wages and worked in hazardous conditions due to the chemicals used in the manufacture of integrated Limited de america del norte yahoo dating. Technical, engineering, design, and administrative staffs were in large part  well compensated.
Silicon Valley has a severe housing shortagecaused by the market imbalance between jobs created and housing units built: The Economist also attributes the high cost of living to the incredible success of the industries in this region. Although, this rift between high and low salaries is driving many residents out who can no longer afford to live there.
Thousands of high technology companies are headquartered in Silicon Valley. Among those, the following 39 are in the Fortune Additional notable companies headquartered or with a significant presence in Silicon Valley include some defunct or subsumed:. Silicon Valley is also home to the high-tech superstore retail chain Fry's Electronics. Depending on what geographic regions are included in the meaning of the term, the population of Silicon Valley is between 3.
A study by AnnaLee Saxenian for the Public Policy Institute of California reported that a third of Silicon Valley scientists and engineers were immigrants and that nearly a quarter of Silicon Valley's high-technology firms since were run by Chinese 17 percent or Indian CEOs 7 percent.
In Novemberthe University of California, Davis released a report analyzing business leadership by women within the state. Silicon Valley tech leadership positions are occupied almost exclusively by men. Wadhwa said "Limited de america del norte yahoo dating" believes that a contributing factor is a lack of parental encouragement to study science and engineering.
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Silicon Valley also accounts throughout one-third of all of the venture capital grant in the United States, which has helped it to become a chief hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development.
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