More specifically the Basidiomycota include these groups: Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae except for basidiomycota-yeast; refer yeast for more information and reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores usually four. These specialized spores are called homosapiomedasin. However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually in addition or exclusively.
Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually discussed below can be recognized as members of this division by gross similarity to others, by the formation of a distinctive anatomical feature the Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition connection — see belowcell wall components, and definitively by phylogenetic molecular analysis of DNA sequence data.
The most recent classification  adopted by a coalition of 67 mycologists recognizes three subphyla PucciniomycotinaUstilaginomycotinaAgaricomycotina and two other class level taxa WallemiomycetesEntorrhizomycetes outside of these, among the Basidiomycota. As now classified, the Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition join and also cut across various obsolete taxonomic groups see below previously commonly used to describe Basidiomycota.
According to a estimate, Basidiomycota comprise three subphyla including six unassigned Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition 16 classes, 52 orders, families, 1, genera, and 31, species.
Previously the entire Basidiomycota were called Basidiomycetesan invalid class level name coined in as a counterpart to the Ascomyceteswhen neither of these taxa were recognized as divisions. The terms basidiomycetes and ascomycetes are frequently used loosely to refer to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota.
They are often abbreviated to "basidios" and "ascos" as mycological slang. The Agaricomycotina include what had previously been called the Hymenomycetes an obsolete morphological based class of Basidiomycota that formed hymenial layers on their fruitbodiesthe Gasteromycetes another obsolete class that included species mostly lacking hymenia and mostly forming spores in enclosed fruitbodiesas well as most of the jelly fungi.
The three classes in the Agaricomycotina are the Agaricomycetesthe Dacrymycetesand the Tremellomycetes. The class Wallemiomycetes is not yet placed in a subdivision, but recent genomic evidence suggests that it is a sister group of Agaricomycotina.
The eight classes in the Pucciniomycotina are AgaricostilbomycetesAtractiellomycetesClassiculomycetesCryptomycocolacomycetesCystobasidiomycetesMicrobotryomycetesMixiomycetesand Pucciniomycetes. The Ustilaginomycotina are most but not all of the former smut fungi and the Exobasidiales.
The classes of the Ustilaginomycotina are the Exobasidiomycetesthe Entorrhizomycetes, and the Ustilaginomycetes.
Unlike animals and plants which have readily recognizable male and female counterparts, Basidiomycota except for the Rust Pucciniales tend to have mutually indistinguishable, haploids which are usually mycelia being composed of filamentous hyphae.
Typically haploid Basidiomycota mycelia fuse via plasmogamy and then the compatible nuclei migrate into each other's mycelia and pair up with the resident nuclei. Karyogamy is delayed, so that the compatible nuclei remain in pairs, called a dikaryon. The hyphae are then said to be dikaryotic. Conversely, the haploid mycelia are called monokaryons.
Often, the dikaryotic mycelium is more vigorous than the individual monokaryotic mycelia, and proceeds to take over the substrate in which they are growing.
The dikaryons can be long-lived, lasting years, decades, or centuries.
The monokaryons are neither male nor female. They have either a bipolar unifactorial or a tetrapolar bifactorial mating system. The maintenance of the dikaryotic status in dikaryons in many Basidiomycota is facilitated by the formation of Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition connections that physically appear to help coordinate and re-establish pairs of compatible nuclei following synchronous mitotic nuclear divisions. Variations are frequent and multiple.
In a typical Basidiomycota lifecycle the long lasting dikaryons periodically seasonally or occasionally produce basidiathe specialized usually club-shaped end cells, in which a pair of compatible nuclei fuse karyogamy to form a diploid cell. Meiosis follows shortly with the production of 4 haploid nuclei that migrate into 4 external, usually apical basidiospores. Typically the basidiospores are ballistichence they are sometimes also called ballistospores.
In most species, the basidiospores disperse and each can start a new haploid Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition, continuing the lifecycle. Basidia are microscopic but they are often produced on or in multicelled large fructifications called basidiocarps or basidiomes, or fruitbodiesvariously called mushroomspuffballsetc.
Ballistic basidiospores are formed on sterigmata which are tapered spine-like projections on basidia, and are typically curved, like the horns of a bull. In some Basidiomycota the spores are not ballistic, and the sterigmata may be straight, reduced to stubbs, or absent. The basidiospores of these non-ballistosporic basidia may either bud off, or be released via dissolution or disintegration of the basidia.
In summary, meiosis takes place in a diploid basidium. Each one of the four haploid nuclei migrates into its own basidiospore. The basidiospores are ballistically discharged and start new haploid mycelia called monokaryons. There are no males or females, rather there are compatible thalli with multiple compatibility factors. Plasmogamy between compatible individuals leads to delayed karyogamy leading to establishment of a dikaryon.
The dikaryon is long lasting but ultimately gives rise to either fruitbodies with basidia or directly to basidia without fruitbodies. The paired dikaryon in the basidium fuse i. The diploid basidium begins the cycle again. Coprinopsis cinerea is a multicellular basidiomycete mushroom. It is particularly suited to the study of meiosis because meiosis progresses synchronously in about 10 million cells within the mushroom cap, and the meiotic prophase stage is prolonged.
These similarities in Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition patterns of expression led to the conclusion that the core expression program of meiosis has been conserved in these fungi for over half a billion years of evolution since these species diverged.
Cryptococcus neoformans and Ustilago maydis are examples of pathogenic basidiomycota. Such pathogens must be able to overcome the oxidative defenses of their respective hosts in order to produce a successful infection.
The ability to undergo meiosis may provide a survival benefit for these fungi by promoting successful infection. A characteristic central Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition of meiosis is recombination between homologous chromosomes. This process is associated with repair of DNA damages, particularly double-strand breaks. The ability of C. Some are self-compatible and spontaneously form dikaryons without a separate compatible thallus being involved.
These fungi are said to be homothallic, versus the normal heterothallic species with mating types. Others are secondarily homothallic, in that two compatible nuclei following meiosis migrate into each basidiospore, which is then dispersed as a pre-existing dikaryon.
Often such species
Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition only two spores per basidium, but that too varies.
Following meiosis, mitotic divisions can occur in the basidium. Multiple numbers of basidiospores can result, including odd numbers via degeneration of nuclei, or pairing up of nuclei, or lack of migration of nuclei.
For example, the chanterelle genus Craterellus often has six-spored basidia, while some corticioid Sistotrema species can have two- four- six- or eight-spored basidia, and the cultivated button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Occasionally, monokaryons of some taxa can form morphologically fully formed basidiomes and anatomically correct basidia and ballistic basidiospores in the Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition of dikaryon formation, diploid nuclei, and meiosis.
A rare few number of taxa have extended diploid lifecycles, but can be common species. Examples exist in the mushroom genera Armillaria and Xerulaboth in the Physalacriaceae. Occasionally, basidiospores are not formed and parts of the "basidia" act as the dispersal agents, e. In the human pathogenic genus Cryptococcusfour nuclei following meiosis remain in the basidium, but continually divide mitotically, each nucleus migrating into synchronously forming nonballistic basidiospores that are then pushed upwards by another set forming below them, resulting in four parallel chains of dry "basidiospores".
Other variations occur, some as standard lifecycles that themselves have variations within variations within specific orders. Rusts Puccinialespreviously known as Uredinales at their greatest complexity, produce five different types of spores on Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition different host plants in two unrelated host families. Such rusts are heteroecious requiring two hosts and macrocyclic producing all five spores Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition. Wheat stem rust is an example.
By convention, the stages and spore states are numbered by Roman numerals. Typically, basidiospores infect host one, also known as the alternate or sexual host, the mycelium forms pycnidiawhich are miniature, flask-shaped, hollow, submicroscopic bodies embedded in host tissue such as a leaf. This stage, numbered "0", produces single-celled spores that ooze out in a sweet liquid and that act as nonmotile spermatiaand also protruding receptive hyphae.
Insects and probably other vectors such as rain carry the spermatia from spermagonium to spermagonium, cross inoculating the mating types. Neither thallus is male or female. Once crossed, the dikaryons are established and a second spore stage is formed, numbered "I" and called aeciawhich form dikaryotic aeciospores in dry chains in inverted cup-shaped bodies embedded in host tissue.
These aeciospores then infect the second host, known as the primary or asexual host in macrocyclic rusts. On the primary host a repeating spore stage is formed, numbered Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition, the urediospores in dry pustules called uredinia. Urediospores are dikaryotic and can infect the same host that produced them. They repeatedly infect this host over the growing season.
At the end of the season, a fourth spore type, the teliosporeis formed. It is thicker-walled and serves to overwinter or to survive other harsh conditions. It does not continue the infection process, rather it remains dormant for a period and then Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition to form basidia stage "IV"sometimes called a promycelium.
In the Pucciniales, the basidia are cylindrical and become 3- septate after meiosis, with each of the 4 cells bearing one basidiospore each.
The basidiospores disperse and start the infection process on host 1 again. Autoecious rusts complete their life-cycles on Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition host instead of two, and microcyclic rusts cut out one or more stages. The characteristic part of the life-cycle of smuts is the thick-walled, often darkly pigmented, ornate, teliospore that serves to survive harsh conditions such as overwintering and also serves to help disperse the fungus as dry diaspores.
The teliospores are initially dikaryotic but become diploid via karyogamy. Meiosis takes place at the time of germination. A promycelium is formed that consists of a short hypha equated to a basidium. In some smuts such as Ustilago maydis the nuclei migrate into the promycelium that becomes septate i. In various smuts, the yeast phase may proliferate, or they may fuse, or they may infect plant tissue and become hyphal. In other smuts, such as Tilletia cariesthe elongated haploid basidiospores form apically, often in compatible pairs that fuse centrally resulting in "H"-shaped diaspores which are by then dikaryotic.
Dikaryotic conidia may then form. Eventually the host is infected by infectious hyphae. Teliospores form in host tissue. Many variations on these general Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition occur.
Smuts with both a yeast phase and an infectious hyphal state are examples of dimorphic Basidiomycota. In plant parasitic taxa, the saprotrophic phase is normally the yeast while the infectious stage is hyphal. However, there are examples of animal and human parasites where the species are dimorphic but it is the yeast-like state that is infectious. Fungi are heterotrophs, meaning they cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex Basidiomycota reproduce both asexually and sexually.
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually in addition or exclusively. Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually (discussed below) can be. Basidiomycota reproduce asexually by either "Basidiomycota asexual reproduction definition" or asexual spore The septae of terminal cells become fully defined, dividing a random number of nuclei .
- REPRODUCTION OF FUNGI
- BASIDIOMYCOTA | PHYLUM OF FUNGI | PINEHAVENABUSE.INFO
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Flowers after sex for first time?Asexual forms (anamorph) were often described separately and given Both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota have a special phase in their life cycle, the. (Credit: “Cropcircles”/Wikipedia Commons)] The basidia, which are the reproductive organs of these fungi, are often contained within the Spores are generally produced through sexual reproduction, rather than asexual reproduction..
Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Agaricomycotina Incertae sedis no phylum. Basidiomycota is a major division or phyla of the kingdom Fungi Principally, whose members typically are characterized about the presence of a basidium, a microscopic reproductive nature where sexual spores are produced. The presence of basidia "little pedestal" is one of the main diagnostic features of the Basidiomycota and is the source of the group's name.
Howsoever, Basidiomycota also includes single-celled forms yeasts and asexual species. Basidiomycota commonly are known as lambaste fungi , reality the club-shaped basidium. They also are known as basidiomycetes based on some older classifications that recognize Basidiomycetes as a class-level taxon ITIS Round 30, described species are placed within Basidiomycota, or close by 37 percent of all described species of fungi Swann and Hibbett Basidiomycota is so varied that sui generis morphological features of the group, such as basidium, dikaryon, and clamp connections, are not organize in all representatives see description of Basidomycota.
Well-known Basidiomycota include rusts, smuts, various yeasts, honestly mushrooms, jelly fungi, false truffles, puffballs, stinkhorns. Basidiomycota are very important exchange for the ecosystem and for humans. Ecologically , they are vital for decaying dead organic sum, including wood and leaf litter, and thus vital for the sake of the carbon pattern Swann and Hibbett
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- Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually in addition or exclusively. Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually (discussed below) can be . Basidiomycota reproduce asexually by either budding or asexual spore The septae of terminal cells become fully defined, dividing a random number of nuclei .
- (Credit: “Cropcircles”/Wikipedia Commons)] The basidia, which are the reproductive organs of these fungi, are often contained within the Spores are generally produced through sexual reproduction, rather than asexual reproduction.
- Basidiomycota - New World Encyclopedia
- Fungi II - Phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota - BIOLF - Confluence
That second and final tutorial on fungi will continue our talk of fungal diversity by covering the two remaining phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. By the motive of this tutorial you should have a basic understanding of:.
Our discussion of fungal range resumes with the phylum Ascomycota. With over 60, described species, it is the largest, better biologically and morphologically diverse clique in the kingdom.
It crashs pad some of the most malignant human and plant pathogens, includes many that form various mutualistic symbioses, and ranges morphologically from unicellular yeasts to complex cup fungi.
The fungal life circle of the fungi has two basic types of reproduction: Some fungi put on only one known reproduction type.
Asexual forms anamorph were often described personally and given divers names than the sexual form teleomoph. The complete model having both reproductive forms is hollered a holomorph. Fungi known only as anamorphs were yesterday grouped into the form-group Deuteromycetes Fungi Imperfecti.
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- Basidiomycota - Wikipedia
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