Electron-beam-induced deposition EBID is a process of decomposing gaseous molecules by an electron beam leading to deposition of non-volatile fragments onto a nearby substrate. The electron beam is usually provided by a scanning electron microscope , which results in high spatial accuracy potentially below one nanometer and the possibility to produce free-standing, three-dimensional structures.
Another method is ion-beam-induced deposition IBID , where a focused ion beam is applied instead. Precursor materials are typically liquid or solid and gasified prior to deposition, usually through vaporization or sublimation , and introduced, at accurately controlled rate, into the high-vacuum chamber of the electron microscope.
Alternatively, solid precursors can be sublimated by the electron beam itself. When deposition occurs at a high temperature or involves corrosive gases, a specially designed deposition chamber is used;  it is isolated from the microscope, and the beam is introduced into it through a micrometre-sized orifice. The small orifice size maintains differential pressure in the microscope vacuum and deposition chamber no vacuum.
Such deposition mode has been used for EBID of diamond. In the presence of the precursor gas, the electron beam is scanned over the substrate, resulting in deposition of material. The scanning is usually computer-controlled. The deposition rate depends on a variety of processing parameters, such as the partial precursor pressure, substrate temperature, electron beam parameters, applied current density, etc.
The majority of decomposition occurs via low energy electron impact:
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