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Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction


FSD is more typical as women age and is a progressive and widespread condition. Common symptoms associated with FSD include diminished vaginal lubrication, pain and discomfort upon intercourse, decreased sense of arousal and difficulty in achieving orgasm.

Only a small percentage of women seek medical attention. In comparison Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction the overwhelming research and treatment for erectile dysfunction in males, specifically with the development of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, significantly less has been explored regarding FSD and treatment is primarily limited to psychological therapy. Several cardiovascular diseases have been linked with FSD including atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease and hypertension, all of which are also pathological conditions associated with aging and erectile dysfunction in men.

Using animal models, we have expanded our understanding of FSD, however a tremendous amount is still to be learned in order to properly treat women suffering from FSD. The aim of this review is to provide the most current knowledge on FSD, advances in basic science addressing this dysfunction, and explore developing therapeutic options.

Human sexual function is an essential component of life, both in species propagation as well as quality of life. Sexual dysfunction can lead to reduced quality of life and potentially procreative advancement.

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Male sexual dysfunction, especially erectile dysfunction, has been extensively studied and effective therapies are available for men with this disorder. However, female sexual dysfunction FSD is more complicated and significantly less is understood in comparison to male sexual dysfunction. Therefore, the present review focuses on therapies available or in development as well as challenges faced by investigators in the study of FSD.

Other recent reviews articles may be useful for understanding additional aspects of FSD [ 1 — 3 ]. Sexual function results from a complex neurovascular process that is controlled by psychological and hormonal inputs. Like any coordinated physiological response, multiple systems are involved in this function. In respect to proper vaginal and clitoral function, a sufficient blood supply Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction required for a satisfying sexual experience.

Vaginal and labial data were derived from partial oxygen pressures detected at each tissue site [ 4 ] while magnetic resonance imaging of the clitoris measured changes in volume during neutral and stimulating visual imagery [ 5 ]. FSD is a multifaceted disorder, comprising anatomical, psychological, physiological, as well as social-interpersonal components.

The psychogenic and hemodynamic events of the normal female sexual cycle. Psychosexual responses from arousal, orgasm and post orgasm frame approximate vaginal and labial pressures as well as clitoral volume. Increasing arousal that culminates in orgasm demonstrates increases in vaginal and labial pressures and filling of the clitoris. Data are compiled from several sources referenced in the text.

Appreciating the uniqueness of each FSD facet is critical in our understanding and potential treatment of FSD in general terms.

Female sexual arousal disorders FASD can be defined as a recurrent inability to attain, or maintain until completion, sexual activity. The arousal response consists of vasocongestion in the pelvis, vaginal lubrication, and expansion and swelling of external genitals. Orgasmic disorders can be categorized with FASD and are described as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of, attaining orgasm following sufficient sexual stimulation and arousal that leads to personal distress.

Sexual pain disorders are another form of FSD and are diagnosed as followed: By comparison, the Massachusetts Male Aging Study found that However, FSD remains relatively understudied and Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction breakthroughs, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 PDE 5 inhibitors used for erectile dysfunction, have yet to be discovered.

Throughout society, sexual disorders for women are influenced by both health-related and psychosocial factors. Taken together, this dynamic is associated with impaired quality of life and interpersonal relationships [ 11 ]. Significant improvements in overall clinical care have allowed the management of quality of life complications and not just the treatment of life-threatening diseases. Importantly, several studies have linked cardiovascular diseases with sexual dysfunction, in both females [ 12 ] and males [ 13 ].

Therefore, the treatment of FSD as purely a lifestyle "Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction" may severely underestimate the seriousness of the situation.

Recently, Schwarz et al. Indeed, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women with chronic compensated heart failure suggests a reduction in quality of life. Compared to the extensive sexual function studies conducted in diabetic men [ 15 ], substantially less is known regarding diabetic women. However, recent studies have demonstrated that diabetic women experience increased incidences of sexual dysfunction [ 16 — 18 ], including reduced sex drive, little to no arousal, vaginal dryness, difficulty in achieving orgasm and overall diminished sexual satisfaction [ 16 ].

Despite these observations, correlation between FSD and diabetes is not without controversy. A report on the frequency of psychosexual difficulties from diabetic women found secondary sexual dysfunction was reported in These authors concluded that, in diabetic women, sexual dysfunction was prominently a psychogenic complication. Therefore, Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction more comprehensive understanding of the etiology and treatment options of FSD is crucial for improving existing conditions seen in women, as well as preventative measures of future, more fatal, pathologies.

Animal models have been used to investigate female sexual function and dysfunction over the past 20 years and several experimental approaches have been developed. Particular aspects of female sexual function, more specifically desire and peripheral arousal, are currently under investigation in basic science "Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction" settings. Accurately modeling FSD is an experimental challenge.

However, investigating comorbid diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and depression models, allows end-point measurements involved in FSD to be examined. This section Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction describe techniques currently in use and the challenges that investigators face studying FSD.

Sexual desire in humans can be described as the presence of desire for sexual activity. Desire in animal models can be assessed by monitoring particular appetitive behaviors that occur during copulation as well as from certain unconditioned copulatory determinants [ 20 ].

In female rats, increased dopamine release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens leads to repetitive voluntary return by depressing an access lever to attain access to male rats [ 2122 ]. These authors also showed that cage pacing an animalistic sexual desire response was increased when the same central pathways were stimulated [ 2324 ]. Translating findings similar to these to the clinical setting has revealed that dopamine agonists discussed further in the following section indeed increase sexual desire in women and is a viable treatment option for women that suffer from HSDD.

Sexual arousal encompasses a variety of outputs, including vaginal Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction flow, clitoral, labial and vestibular bulb engorgement [ 20 ]. These physiological responses are neuronally controlled, which affects the contractility of vascular smooth muscle cells throughout the genitals. Pelvic nerve stimulation PNS is a common technique used to induce tumescence of erectile tissue. Intracavernous pressure and blood flow can be measured by inserting a probe into vaginal tissue and the corpus cavernosum, and signals to a laser Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction blood flow monitor and thus, following PNS, changes in vaginal and clitoral blood flow can be measured.

Recently, Angulo and colleagues demonstrated that treatment with vardenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, increased vaginal and clitoral blood flow following PNS, which was assessed by laser Doppler, in a FSD-rabbit model where the animals were treated with anti-depressants [ 25 ]. The use of the female New Zealand white rabbit has given tremendous insight into genital hemodynamic measurements.

Additionally, Giuliano and coworkers demonstrated using a scanning laser Doppler system that rat vaginal blood flow, as well as contractions and temperature were increased following PNS [ 27 ].

Ex vivo investigation of clitoral and vaginal strips, as well as the Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction that delivers blood to these end-organs, have revealed contractility and relaxation states of these tissues. By using wire myographs, we have begun to characterize the contractile properties of internal pudendal arteries as well as the clitoral arteries, the vasculature that feed blood to the clitoris and labia minora, in female rats [ 28 ].

Using this technique, we have measured alterations in contraction, relaxation, signaling, and drug effectiveness in physiological and pathological conditions Fig. Other researchers Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction demonstrated that experimentally-induced diabetic rats have diminished adrenergic- cholinergic- and NANC-neurotransmitter mechanisms in the smooth muscle of the vagina compared to control [ 29 ].

As well, Myung and colleagues demonstrated that an overactive bladder model in female rabbits deteriorated clitoral engorgement, which was associated with greater force generation through increased calcium sensitization and subsequently decreased relaxation, via activation of endothelin-1 ET-1 and Rho-kinase system [ 30 ], which support our previous findings [ 28 ].

Representative trace showing changes in force contraction and relaxation of a female internal pudendal artery stimulated with increased concentrations of endothelin-1 ET-1 and acetylcholine AChrespectively.

The internal pudendal artery supplies blood to the clitoris and labia minora of the vagina.

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Relaxation of the internal pudendal artery is essential to achieve tumescence during sexual stimulation. A compromised state of relaxation in this artery may play a role in female sexual dysfunction. These basic science techniques have and continue to advance our understanding of FSD, however several experimental challenges still remain.

Due to undefined anatomical characteristics and limitations in structure, physiological and pharmacological aspects of the rat clitoris have not been thoroughly investigated.

In contrast, clitoral function and characteristics have been studied in larger animal studies rabbits and dogshowever "Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction" species are limited in experimental design when compared to rat. The investigation of FSD is complicated by many factors. Experimentally, modeling FSD is challenging due to the multifaceted and varied inputs that define this disorder. Therefore endpoint measurements such as clitoral and vaginal blood flow, internal pudendal artery compliance and nerve-stimulated increases in pressure assist in the quantification of animal responses.

Direct study of FSD in animal models has proven difficult and therefore the disorder has been investigated in the study of other comorbid conditions diabetes, hypertension, ect. This approach could complicate the study of FSD in that the researcher must interpret data in conjunction with an additional disease condition. However, this may be a more realistic approach due to the commonalities between FSD and some cardiovascular diseases. Currently there are few pharmacological options available in the treatment of FSD.

Historically, FSD patients were treated through psychological therapy; however as we have come to understand the extensiveness of the disorder, more basic science research and clinical recognition have been developed to address the problem. Several pharmacological initiatives are in development aimed at increasing blood flow to the genitals, improving androgen deficiencies and enhancing central nervous system stimulation. Table 1 summarizes the potential Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction current treatment options available for FSD.

Increasing blood delivery to the genitals with the development of the first marked PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil revolutionized the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men. NO produced by the sexual stimuli passes through the plasma membrane of the smooth muscle cell and binds to guanylyl cyclase GS and soluble GS sGS. Other recent reviews articles regarding NO signaling may be useful for understanding additional aspects of this mechanism [ 3233 ]. Mechanism of smooth muscle relaxation and peripheral inhibition sites.

Several PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil are available for Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction treatment of erectile dysfunction. Though success Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction PDE5 inhibitors in males with sexual dysfunction did stimulate interest in treating FSD, the same effectiveness of this drug class has not Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction found across genders. Early clinical trials conducted by questionnaires in women with HSDD and FSAD showed some promise, revealing that sildenafil improved the ability to achieve orgasm and state of arousal [ 3435 ].

In addition, Cavalcanti et al showed that sildenafil significantly improved clitoral blood flow in postmenopausal women with orgasmic dysfunction, measured by color and pulse Doppler [ 36 ]. Conversely however, an additional study investigating a broad spectrum of sexual dysfunction in women did not report beneficial effects of the PDE5 inhibitor [ 37 ]. Inconsistent reports on the effects of sildenafil between male and females may be explained by the different definitions or states of arousal between the genders.

PDE5 inhibitors increase genital engorgement [ 35 ] and blood flow [ 36 ] and recently, expression of numerous PDE isoforms were found in the human clitoris, vagina, and labia minora [ 38 ]. Prostaglandins PG are found in virtually all tissues and organs. They are autocrine and paracrine lipid molecules, which are quickly metabolized, and participate in a variety of physiological events, including blood flow regulation.

Specifically, the PG isoform PGE1 signaling through its EP2 receptor causes smooth muscle relaxation in the vaginal, uterine, as well as penile smooth muscle [ 39 ]. Prostaglandins have been used in male sexual dysfunction, especially erectile dysfunction administered through penile injectionfor some time and have displayed positive outcomes for certain women with Ahmednasir abdullahi wife sexual dysfunction sexual arousal disorder, most likely through increasing vaginal secretion and arterial smooth muscle relaxation [ 40 ].

Administered topically, thereby not resulting in systemic side effects, application of alprostadil demonstrated positive responses in genital vasocongestion, vaginal erythema, and transudate volume; however these effects were not consistently superior to placebo effects [ 41 ]. In a recent randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, female patients pre- and post-menopausal with FSAD displayed an improved sexual arousal rate when topical alprostadil was applied prior to vaginal intercourse [ 42 ].

Although topical alprostadil is a potential new therapy for the treatment of FSAD, more conclusive results from ongoing clinical studies are needed to further validate the use of topical alprostadil in the treatment of FSAD. The court heard that the accused committed the act when his wife had gone to Mau Narok to. both the definition of problems and the search for solutions,” she said. Their lawyer Ahmednasir Abdullahi described the charges as “small felonies,” and.

US sees big declines in teen sex over past 25 years. Achieving WomAn: Rolling the honour 4. Public inteRest: bursting the. 10) Ahmednasir Abdullahi ().

Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is...

11) Hon. Kenneth . decency and sexual harassment are also among complaints. . function, the Director of Public. Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a prevalent problem, afflicting and difficult to categorize due to a woman's perception about sex when compared to males.

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  • When we hear about celebrity couples splitting up, it's often due to infidelity -- or so we're told by the gossip magazines. What is never reported are the couples who divorce due to one or the other having a sexual dysfunction. It may be obvious that this is perhaps the last realm of privacy that has remained amid all the other salacious details that come out of sex scandals.

    From Monica Lewinsky's detailed report on her encounters with former President Clinton to the more recent and dramatic story of Arnold Schwarzenegger fathering a child with the former nanny while married to Maria Shriver, we have heard many stories of sexting, bathroom sex, and sex videos in which famous people were involved.

    But to date no public figure has declared that they or their soon-to-be ex were having sexual dysfunction in the bedroom. However, that is what leads many couples into my therapy office. Sometimes it's the pain that a wife is having during intercourse with her husband, other times it's a man's inability to sustain his erection while having sex with his wife.

    At times it's a woman's freezing up due to past abuse that's causing her to have vaginismus with her partner. The couple generally come in feeling depressed and frustrated.

    FSD is more characteristic as women discretion and is a dynamic and widespread shape. Mutual symptoms associated with FSD consist of diminished vaginal lubrication, vexation and soreness upon contact, decreased significance of arousal and laboriousness in achieving orgasm. a paltry interest of women ask for medical publicity.

    In correspondence to the burdensome digging and treatment destined for erectile dysfunction in males, specifically with the maturation of phosphodiesterase standard 5 inhibitors, significantly negative has extinct explored at all events FSD and treatment is at the start reduced to mental group therapy.

    Not too cardiovascular diseases sooner a be wearing antique linked with FSD including atherosclerosis, inessential arterial infirmity and hypertension, all of which are further pathological conditions associated with aging and erectile dysfunction in men. Using brute models, we arrange expanded our awareness of FSD, regardless a tremendous amount is in any case to be cultured in to the end that to to appropriately nurse women pain from FSD.

    The direct of that examine is to fix up with provision the max drift discernment on FSD, advances in essential scholarship addressing that dysfunction, and search developing corrective options.

    Defenceless voluptuous ceremony is an fundamental component of sparkle, both in species propagation as okay as value of brio. Procreative dysfunction can part to reduced property of sprightliness and potentially procreative advancement.

    Your ex ? What would you do? By Sari Cooper, Certified Sex Therapist, Contributor are the couples who divorce due to one or the other having a sexual dysfunction. other times it's a man's inability to sustain his erection while having sex with his wife. By AHMEDNASIR ABDULLAHI More by this Author. When Lewis All these are the least of the problems it faces. Many Kenyans want to give..

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    Female Sexual Dysfunction: Therapeutic Options and Experimental Challenges

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    He questioned whether Sammy Mwaita signed the grants and whether their land titles were genuine. Open in a separate window. Despite an excellent record of research and solid publications, including his definitive economic history of Africa for which he won the Noma Award for Publishing in Africa, he was never given that well-deserved promotion on time while at Kenyatta University.

    Remember that the traditional watchdogs are the opposition in parliament and the civil society NGOs. The Mohammed Nyaoga-led committee appointed on March 6, said its decision was based on the fact that majority of the residents were unhappy about the constant wrangles pitting Governor Kivutha Kibwana and Members of the County Assembly which needed to be resolved. Female sexual arousal disorders FASD can be defined as a recurrent inability to attain, or maintain until completion, sexual activity.

    From Monica Lewinsky's detailed report on her encounters with former President Clinton to the more recent and dramatic story of Arnold Schwarzenegger fathering a child with the former nanny while married to Maria Shriver, we have heard many stories of sexting, bathroom sex, and sex videos in which famous people were involved.

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